Vector Network Analyzer Fundamentals
IF estimation of FSK signals using adaptive smoothed windowed cross Wigner – Ville distribution IF estimation of FSK signals using adaptive smoothed windowed cross Wigner – Ville distribution
Time-varying signals such as frequency shift-keying (FSK) signals can be characterized by the instantaneous frequency (IF). From the estimated If, it is possible to derive the signal modulation parameters such as the subcarrier frequencies and the symbol duration. If accurate time-frequency representation (TFR) is obtained, the cross time-frequency distribution (XTFD) provides an optimum solution to IF estimation over quadratic time-frequency distribution (QTFD). Thus, an adaptive XTFD is proposed, the adaptive smoothed windowed cross Wigner-Ville distribution (ASW-XWVD), for which the kernel parameters are estimated according to the signal characteristics and the choice of reference signal. The IF is estimated from the peak of the TFR and comparison is performed using the S-transform. The variance in the IF estimation using the proposed ASW-XWVD meets the Cramer-Rao lower bound (CRLB) at minimum signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of -3 dB, while the S-transfrom never meets the CRLB, even at SNR of 12 dB. For practical applications, the ASW-XWVD is applied to the FSK signal in the high frequency (HF) band and is able to provide accurate TFR and IF estimates at SNR of 14dB.
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